Ring of Fire Revisited – The Jennings J-22

SiersBy John Siers a.k.a. “Gunsmith Jack”

Some time ago, I wrote an article about gunsmithing the Raven MP-25, the granddaddy of all of the cheap little “Ring of Fire” pistols from the 1970s and 80s. At one time, these guns were the best-selling guns in the USA. They went out of production decades ago but there are thousands of them still out there. Most gunsmiths never get to see one because they cost so little it just isn’t economical to have a gunsmith repair one of them.

I’m mostly retired and have tried to keep my gunsmith business small so it is still more fun than work. As a result, I have time to spend on gunsmith projects that won’t bring much money but are interesting and fun. I’ve looked at a lot of the so-called “Ring of Fire” guns – Bryco, Jennings, Lorcin, etc. and there are a couple that I like. The Raven is one of them, but another is the Jennings J-22. Jennings Firearms was started in 1978 by Bruce Jennings, the son of George Jennings, the founder of Raven Arms. Jennings Firearms ultimately declared bankruptcy but was then reorganized as Bryco Arms. They continued to make the J-22 with no changes in the design until Bryco went out of business in 2003. At that point, Bryco’s designs and tooling were bought out by Jiminez Arms. Jiminez currently makes a model called the J.A. 22 that looks suspiciously like the J-22; but I haven’t had a good look at one of these, so I can’t say for sure.

This little pistol will never win any awards for high-quality construction and there are lots of horror stories out there about unreliability, safety, etc. but I have found the J-22 to be a reasonably well-designed gun and reasonably safe to use. The caveat with any gun, of course, is that the gun has not been modified by some gunsmith wannabe with more brass than sense and that the shooter follow simple common-sense shooting safety protocols. With that in mind, the J-22 is a neat little gun, and the fact that so many of them are still out there is testimony to their durability.

If you’ve never worked on one of these and think you’d like to try it, here’s a short course we’ll call “Jennings 101”; but keep in mind this applies ONLY to the J-22. Jennings/Bryco made the mistake that many of the Ring of Fire companies made – they tried to “scale up” George Jennings original Raven design for larger calibers, all the way up to 9mm. In my opinion the design is adequate for guns of .22 and .25 caliber (and Raven never made anything but a .25 caliber) but poses significant safety hazards in the larger calibers. I do not like and will not work on any of the larger caliber “Ring of Fire” gunsfor that reason.

OK – with that “soapbox” preaching out of the way, let’s look at the J-22. The basic design is simple, with a complete tear-down producing around 20 parts (excluding the magazine, grips and grip screws – see photo).

You start the tear-down by depressing the slide latch/striker-spring cap in the rear of the slide, which lets you lift the rear of the slide and take it forward off the gun. Watch out at this point, because the latch and striker spring may want to go into orbit (to use a Bob Dunlap expression). Taking the grips off leaves the frame and most of the action parts open to view, and at that point you want to make sure that various other parts including the safety and the disconnector do not also fall / fly off and disappear. The sear (and its spring) will usually stay in place because the ejector (a flat blade pinned to the frame) holds the sear down.

Like the Raven and most other Ring of Fire pistols, the J-22 fire-control system consists of a single trigger bar and a disconnector that is mounted externally on the right side of the frame. The sear and sear spring mount vertically in a well in the center of the frame. The disconnector retains the sear and is itself retained by the right grip, which also keeps the trigger bar in alignment with the disconnector. Without the grip, the trigger bar can slip outside the disconnector. Note the vertical tab on top of the trigger bar. This tab is pushed down by the slide when the gun cycles, disengaging the trigger bar from the disconnector until the trigger is released.

On the left side of the frame you will find the safety, which blocks the sear when placed in the safe position. With the grip removed the safety can just be lifted off the frame but be careful not to lose the L-shaped spring that serves as a detent for the safety. This spring fits into its own recess in the frame. This photo shows the safety in the raised (SAFE) position. Note that the tab on top of the safety (to the left in the picture) is blocking pin protruding from the left side of the sear. This prevents the sear from moving downward. Note also that the forward part of the safety is raised up, covering the word “FIRE” by moving it up under the slide and exposing the word “SAFE” on the frame. This also blocks the slide from moving backward, so that the slide cannot be cycled with the safety on.

If I have any concern about the safety of this design, it’s that the safety lever itself is made of plastic. If that little plastic top tab is broken, deformed, or just worn down, it may be possible to overcome the safety with excessive trigger pressure. In other words, the trigger is trying to pull the sear downward, and when the gun is on “SAFE” that little piece of plastic is all that is stopping it. If you are working on one of these guns, this is a area to which you want to pay special attention. Be sure to verify that the safety is doing its job, even when the trigger is pulled with maximum pressure.

As for the design of the sear itself, I don’t have any issues. The sear engages the striker with engagement that is normally “neutral to slightly positive” (as Bob so often says); but there have been a couple of documented cases of accidental discharge in which it was noted that the sear had been damaged or deliberately modified(possibly by some wannabe gunsmith trying to do a “trigger job”) which reduced the engagement of the striker and sear. In such cases, you can wind up having a “war of the springs” in which the fully-compressed striker spring is fighting against the uncompressed (and much smaller) sear spring. If the sear engagement is even slightly negative, the striker spring is likely to win. The sear will be pushed down, and the striker will be released. The picture shows how the sear engages the striker in the gun.

Of course, you’ll also want to check the condition of the sear spring, which requires unpinning the ejector blade – seen behind the sear in the picture – so you can remove the sear. I have found that J-22s usually have a reasonably stiff sear spring, which helps to prevent problems; but you’ll want to beware that someone hasn’t replaced it with a weaker spring to lighten the trigger pull. Likewise, I’ve found that these guns generally have a lot of engagement between the sear and striker; but that produces a long, squishy trigger pull, since the sear has to move quite a distance to disengage. I consider that a safety feature and haven’t found it to be a problem when shooting. A crisp, creep-free trigger just isn’t something you are going to get with these guns, but the trigger they have is just fine for casual, non-competition shooting. Limit your “trigger jobs” to polishing up the trigger, trigger bar, and disconnector. Stay away from the sear and striker.

The J-22’s extractor is mounted on the side of the slide, pinned in place retaining the extractor spring. I’ve seen a few J-22s that have extract / eject issues, but these are usually fixed by working on the extractor or replacing it if it is damaged. It’s a simple enough part that you can probably make a new one if necessary.

The J-22 magazine can be disassembled, even though the base plate is staked on. You just need to depress and captivate the spring through the witness hole, then tilt the follower to take it out. After that, the spring comes out easily. The magazine catch is pinned into the frame at the bottom of the magazine well and has its own spring. It’s made of a fairly soft alloy, and I sometimes get guns with that part broken off. Fortunately, replacements are cheap and readily available.

Complete disassembly and reassembly of the J-22 poses no special challenges. With a design this simple, there’s not much that can go wrong with the gun. Broken grips are common, and the grips are important because they serve to retain the safety and the disconnector. Used grips are available but some of them are barely in serviceable condition, if at all. New reproduction grips are also available but cost too much for a gun that is only worth $100 in good working order. Some J-22s came equipped with wood grips and it’s possible to make them if you have any woodworking skills. They are simple enough that blanks can be cut out with a scroll saw and fitted from there. As for other parts, they are available from the usual suppliers and don’t cost that much.

Most J-22s were made with a chromed finish (like the one in the pictures here) and those hold up pretty well. You might find some with a painted black finish. Those don’t usually look nearly as good; but the good news is that if you strip the finish off, that zinc alloy seems to take very well to spray-on finishes like DuraCoat or DuraBlue.

So there you have it – the “Jennings 101” course. You still might never get to work on one of these, but you might want to give them a little more consideration the next time you see one sitting on a table at a gun show. As guns go, the J-22s are not as bad as some people make them out to be, and can actually be fun little shooters for very little money. But if you happen to run across any of the Jennings, Bryco, or similar 9mm or .380 models, you’d probably best leave them sitting on the table.

10 Responses to Ring of Fire Revisited – The Jennings J-22

  1. Thanks for sharing this very interesting article- as you said one may never see one of these but it is good to know!

  2. In 1981, I bought two Ravens and one J-22 from a gun shop for $35 apiece. One of the Ravens fell out of my tackle box and is at the bottom of the St. Johns River. The J-22 was stolen from my coat pocket at a party. I still have one Raven and occasionally fire it using the mini-range in my back yard. I’ve never had any problems with any of them. If the one I have malfunctions, I would chunk it into the lake we live on so it could never be used for anything nefarious.

  3. My father purchased a Raven new back in the 70’s. It’s still only be fired twice. He keeps it on him when traveling. I found a Jennings in .22 that looked exactly like it just a year or two ago. Paid $60.00 for it. Neat little guns.

  4. Nice article, John. I have seen quite a few of the guns in this “family”. The most common problem is parts missing. After obtaining the missing parts, a few had what Bob calls premature disconnect. Probably why the owner took it apart in the first place, thus launching some parts “into orbit.”

  5. I buy these guns in “gunsmith bundles” from a distributor and fix them up for resale. There are actually collectors out there who look for them, and they bring more today than their price tag when they were new. I recently put three Ravens on Gunbroker and was surprised when all three of them went for their “Buy Now” price of $130. The J-22s typically go for a little less, but I’ve still sold a couple of them for over $100. These must be going to collectors, since you can buy a brand-new Phoenix HP-22 or HP-25 for that price with a lifetime warranty.

  6. I have a regular customer who buys every one of these guns he can find. Then he brings them to me to clean and make them work. I have some difficulty in finding some of the parts. One of the samples was short the recoil spring and I had some difficulty getting a proper one. I agree the guns are cheaply made, but functional. Of all the ones I’ve had come in, a recent Raven was in nearly new condition. The Jennings 9 is an accident waiting to happen IMHO.

  7. Thanks for a great article. I actually purchased a used Lorcin 380 for $100 at a pound shop many years ago, very disappointed when it didn’t fire the first time I tried. I kept it as a gun to work on when nothing else was available. After many repairs, including making a new extractor and re-machining the hole for the pin (Could not get the pin out to replace the extractor, made a threaded hole larger than the pin and machined a pin holder that keeps it in place) the gun fires a few rounds and “catches” an empty casing. These repairs are definitely far more than what it’s worth however its served well as low cost practice and experiment gun.

  8. The first time I was presented a J-22 (AKA Jammin 22) for repair, the owner said it would only fire once then he had to use a cleaning rod to knock the spent cartridge out. I cycled six dummy rounds threw it and the extracted flawlessly but when I test fired it, the slide did not come back. On close examination I found the chamber metal was soft enough that repeated dry firing had drove a pit in the chamber thus bulging the metal into the chamber. I drilled the pit a slight bit deeper than the firing pin protruded to prevent future bulging and reamed the chamber out. After that it functioned as originally intended. The most common problem with the Lorcin L-22 is the extractor retaining pin coming did lodged and the extractor spring and pin become lost. Replacement extractors are next to non existent. but if you get one the best fix is to tap the pin hole and use a screw with Loctite. As far as the larger calibers go I have seen some serious failures with the lorcin and brycos, but I have owned a .32 Davis (I actually killed a deer with it) and a currently own a Davis .380. They have never malfunctioned for me.

  9. I’m one of those gunsmiths who sees these way too often. In my area, everyone seems to have one. As well as an Iver Johnson break top pistol, also usually not worth repairing Parts are rather available for the Jennings/Bryco/Raven/Jiminez/Lorcin/Phoenix/etc. Ring of Fire style guns. And parts really aren’t expensive either.

    But, there are so many variations based on the same overall design, parts you get may or may not fit the specific gun you have in front of you. I’ve had to reorder several times to get the right fitting part. More than a half hour labor and you’ve spent more than the gun is worth.


  10. I purchased my very first J22 a month ago on a gun auction site. I always wanted one when young, but ended up with an RG revolver. Big mistake. J22 cost me 157 bucks. But it looked great, and i wanted it. The J22 arrived. My first check was the material. Auction site mentioned SS. But i don’t remember SS models. It sure seems to be SS. It had very dull grey color. But after polishing with dremwl, it shines like chrome.
    Since the beauty was done, now came function.It would not eject. So, i worked on extracor, ejector, and polished feed ramp. Started to eject, but not consistent.
    I love the lil pistol. So i didnt give up. Ordered all new springs, extractor, and ejector from Numrich. Oh my gosh. I could not believe difference in new spring lenghts vs springs from possibly 70’s manufacture.
    J22 runs like a champ now. Great lil pistol. Trigger pull lacks what i would prefer. But see on this site its recommended to not change spring tensions on the sear/striker area. That is only spring i did not change in fear of an even heavier trigger pull.
    Great site. I enjoy reading what eveyone has posted.